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The first thing you are likely seeing here is a recipe. I try to translate one recipe from a historical source every day, and here is where I post them. When I have time to experiment, I also post reports on actually trying out the dishes or short articles on other historical questions I find interesting. But mostly, it is recipes. I hope you enjoy them.

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Galantine (Jelly) Recipes from de Rontzier

The Kunstbuch includes a long list of ‘cool jellies’ with instructions for making them.

Of white, red and yellow cool jellies

1 You put into a new pot wine, water, two and a half times as much wine as water, and Bestand (isinglass). If you do not wish to have isinglass in it, you shall also leave out the water and cook calves’ feet and use the same broth in place of water and isinglass. Boil cut-up cinnamon in wine and pass (strain) it through a haircloth into the jelly broth (Gallertbrueh), season it with sugar, and put in it two or three pewter bowls. But also put some of the jelly broth (Gallertbrueh) in small serving bowls (Commentlein). When the jelly sets (bestehet), you sit (work?) with the small bowls and drip it (their content) onto the other jelly with a feather so the drops do not run together.

2 Item in summer you boil lamb’s or sheep’s feet in wine and the third part water. Then you boil whole cinnamon and mace in wine and pass it through a haircloth over the feet. You also well add rosewater and sugar, pour it into a silver (dish), set red jelly into a small bowl (Commentlein) by the fire and drip it on this jelly.

3 Item you boil dates, anise and cinnamon in wine, pass it through a haircloth, prepare it with sugar and isinglass (Bestande) or calves’ feet, pour it into a silver (dish) and let it get cold etc.

4 Item you pound figs and unsugared coriander in a mortar and then boil it in wine and a third part water with mace, and pass it through a haircloth. Add sugar and isinglass and set it on the fire, but so it does not boil up. Wash small raisins in water, set them on the fire with rosewater and sugar, and then arrange these raisins along the edge (of the bowl) around this jelly.

5 Item you peel sweet Seville oranges (suesse Pomerantzen – probably the less bitter kind, not actual sweet oranges) and cook them in water, isinglass, and wine with mace and sugar. Pass it through a haircloth so that it chills in a silver (dish). Then take a little in a small dish (Commentlein), mix it with saffron, and drip it on the other jelly with a feather. Lay candied orange peel around the edge.

6 You pound almonds small and pass them through a haircloth with water and wine that cinnamon has been boiled in. Prepare it with isinglass and sugar and also with rosewater, if you wish to have that with it. Drip it with yellow or red jelly.

7 You boil plums (Schwetzken), pour off the broth, pass it through a haircloth, season it with pounded cinnamon, ginger, sugar, and isinglass, and when it sets, drip it with white jelly. This jelly is good for the sick because it is good and laxative (laxiert).

8 Item you boil plums in water and wine, pass them through a haircloth, prepare them with mace, sugar, lavender or rose water,. And isinglass, decorate (belegt) it with small preserved (eingemacht – probably cooked and sugared) muscatel pears and drip it with white or yellow jelly.

9 You pass through currants (S. Johansbirn) or the mus of them through a haircloth with wine and water and prepare it with rosewater, sugar, and isinglass or calves’ foot broth. When it sets, drip it with the same broth.

10 Item you boil mace, whole cinnamon, and coriander or anise in wine etc.

11 Item you prepare a jelly of cherry mus and wine. Add water when it is thick (starck) and add sugar cinnamon, and isinglass that was passed through a cloth (durchgeschlagen) so that it becomes quite sweet with the sugar. Afterwards, drip it with the same broth.

12 Item you boil cardamom, sugar, and isinglass in cherry mus, let it run through a haircloth and drip it with the same broth.

13 Item you boil wine, water, mace, sugar, isinglass, and saffron together, pass it through a haircloth and drip it with red jelly.

14 Item you boil cinnamon, saffron and isinglass, pass it through a haircloth, season it with sugar and washed small raisins and drip it with pale (bleichem) jelly.

15 Item you roast quinces in the ashes, let them cool, pass them through a haircloth with wine and water, and prepare them with whole mace, sugar, and isinglass.

16 Item you cut up green fennel, pound it, and pass it through a haircloth with wine and water. Melt isinglass, add sugar and rosewater, and stir it together with the green juice. Then take it off the fire immediately (stracks), pour it into a silver (dish), and drip it with red jelly.

17 Item you boil nutmeg, sugar, small raisins, isinglass, and almonds cut small in red wine. Let it cool and stick it with almonds.

18 Item boil red wine, nutmeg, sugar, a little ginger, cardamom, isinglass, and lavender water together and drip bit with red, white, or green jelly.

19 Item you melt isinglass, pass it through a haircloth, and prepare it with mulberry juice (Maulbirnsafft), sugar, and rosewater. Drip it with red jelly.

These are clearly sweet jellies the way we would understand the concept. The description as ‘cool’ (kuehl) most likely refers to their humoral effect, cooling and soothing in the heat. The way they are presented is mostly fairly basic, set in serving bowls, though we will see a more elaborate recipe later. I find the idea of decorating the surface of the set jelly with drops in a contrasting colour interesting, but find it hard to imagine what it would actually look like. Clearly, it was a complex operation. The cook was expected to keep small bowls of varicoloured jellies on hand to melt as needed to decorate others. It may be worth trying come summer.

Franz de Rontzier, head cook to the bishop of Halberstadt and duke of Braunschweig, published his encyclopaedic Kunstbuch von mancherley Essen in 1598. He clearly looks to Marx Rumpolt’s New Kochbuch as the new gold standard, but fails to match it in engaging style or depth. He is thus overshadowed by the twin peaks of Marx Rumpolt and Anna Wecker. What makes his work interesting is the way in which he systematically lists versions of a class of dishes, illustrating the breadth or a court cook’s repertoire. He is also more modernly fashionable than Rumpolt. Looking to France rather than Italy and Spain for inspiration, and some of the dishes he first describes may be genuine innovations.

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“Peasant Dumplings”

Another recipe from the Kuenstlichs und Fuertrefflichs Kochbuch:

Die Knödelesserin, image courtesy of wikimedia commons

72 Peasant Dumplings (Bauren knödlein)

Take pepper, and a good part of onions with it, but not too much. Chop it well together, but not too small. Melt (brenne) a good piece of fat in this and then break two or three eggs into it and parsley. Do not make it too thin with the eggs and fat, and also take wheat flour and groats (grieß), one spoonful, but not as much as the wheat flour, or also add (grated) white Semel bread to it if you can have it. Thus they become thick. Make the mass quite thick, as for meatballs (flaysch knoedlein). When the meat broth is boiling, lay them in and let them cook quite gently. They must not cook long. And put in fat and eggs beforehand, otherwise it does no good.

This recipe makes an interesting addition to previous ones for meat and bread dumplings. It is not entirely clear, but it seems that finely chopped onions are seasoned with pepper and fried in oil (brennen always refers to a high heat and is used in roux recipes and for drizzling hot fat over foods to give them a crust). They are then mixed with eggs and the result worked into a dough with flour, semolina (grieß refers to coarsely ground grain suitable for porridge), and grated bread. The mass is worked into dumplings and cooked in hot water, probably simmered at a low heat.

The final sentence is a little cryptic. I guess it means that you must properly first fry the onions and then work the dough, not add the onions to the dough as one might. The recipe allows for the interpretation of cooking the eggs with the onions, but I am not sure how well scrambled egg dumplings would hold together. The flavour profile could well be interesting though.

As to the attribution of the dish, it is possible that this kind of dumpling was eaten in peasant households. Eggs, onions, fat, flour and even grated bread would be available in a rural kitchen. Like many dishes called ‘peasant’ in surviving recipes, they are not poverty food by any description, though.

The short Kuenstlichs und Fuertrefflichs Kochbuch was first printed in Augsburg in 1559 and reprinted in Nuremberg in 1560 and subsequently. Despite its brevity, it is interesting especially as it contains many recipes for küchlein, baked or deep-fried confections, that apparently played a significant role in displaying status. We do not know who the famous cook referenced in the title may have been or if he ever existed.

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Instructions for Boiling Fish

From the Kuenstlichs und Fuertrefflichs Kochbuch again:

Lampreys courtesy of wikimedia commons

73 To Boil Fresh Lampreys

Take them and scald them in warm water. Then cut off their heads but do not cut off the tails. If you scald them well, you can draw out fine veins from the tail if they are veiny once the heads are cut off. Wash them as nicely as possible in warm water. Then take a pan, pour water into it and boil them. Let them boil long and then salt them slowly, otherwise they become tough (zech). They must boil longer than a carp. Then arrange them on a plate, thus you eat them with ginger. If you would boil fresh salmon, you must boil it like a carp, in vinegar and water.

74 To Boil Trout

If you wish to boil trout well, you must boil them in pure vinegar.

75 To Boil Tench

Cut them open and take out the innards. Take boiling water and scald them, thus the slime comes off. Then they have small scales, also remove those. When they are cleaned well, cut them apart like a carp, wash them nicely inside like other fish, and boil them in water until they are half done (biß auff halben theyl). Then remove the water and pour on wine. Let it boil and add add breadcrumbs (semelmeel), thus they develop a thick sauce (brüe). Afterwards add sugar as well, colour it yellow, and season it. You may also boil an eel this way.

Fashionable lampreys, trout, salmon, and large tench were all expensive fish and worth paying considerable attention to when they were prepared. These recipes very likely are shorthand versions of what was likely a complex and skilled operation.

The short Kuenstlichs und Fuertrefflichs Kochbuch was first printed in Augsburg in 1559 and reprinted in Nuremberg in 1560 and subsequently. Despite its brevity, it is interesting especially as it contains many recipes for küchlein, baked or deep-fried confections, that apparently played a significant role in displaying status. We do not know who the famous cook referenced in the title may have been or if he ever existed.

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Raised Galantine of Turkey

I am done with the translation and two online classes on culinary history and just stumbled over this gem from de Rontzier:

Raised (auffgehobenen) galantine of turkey

1 Item you leave a turkey whole and cool it in water (after slaughter). Then you cook it until it is done in water and wine, salt it, and lay it in a bowl. Take a ring that is two or three fingers tall and as wide as the bowl. Set it on the bowl and smear (seal) it with dough on the outside. Lay the turkey in it. Then prepare a galantine broth of wine, water, and Bestand that is called isinglass (haußbletter), sugar, if you wish to have that with it, cardamom, so that it becomes strong of it, nutmeg, cinnamon, and a little salt. Bring it to the fire and let it come to a boil. Then pour it over the turkey through a haircloth so that it stands level with the ring (dem ring gleich stehe). When it has gelled, take off the ring and stick the galantine with whole almonds every second one (ein umb die ander) of which should be gilded. You also gild the feet and the the body above and stick it with slivered almonds. Serve it cold.

2 Item you carve up turkeys, boil them in water, prepare them in a cauldron coloured brown or yellow (macht sie in einem Kessel gelb oder braun ab) or leave them white. Prepare a galantine over them as it described here and stick it with almonds or small and large raisins etc.

This is not a very artful use of clear jelly, but certainly creative. Having it stand higher than the edge of the serving bowl and stuck all over with almonds would make for an interesting effect, though it must have been difficult to eat this without making a mess. Basically, this is a larger version of the fashionable stacks of mousse and jelly we build with steel tart rings. It is interesting that a word for isinglass was Bestand, related to stehen and suggestive of stability and permanence.

Franz de Rontzier, head cook to the bishop of Halberstadt and duke of Braunschweig, published his encyclopaedic Kunstbuch von mancherley Essen in 1598. He clearly looks to Marx Rumpolt’s New Kochbuch as the new gold standard, but fails to match it in engaging style or depth. He is thus overshadowed by the twin peaks of Marx Rumpolt and Anna Wecker. What makes his work interesting is the way in which he systematically lists versions of a class of dishes, illustrating the breadth or a court cook’s repertoire. He is also more modernly fashionable than Rumpolt. Looking to France rather than Italy and Spain for inspiration, and some of the dishes he first describes may be genuine innovations.

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Another Choux Fritter

Apologies for being very busy, I am leaving you another short recipe from the Kuenstlichs und Fuertrefflichs Kochbuch today. These may be the ‘bruete kuechlein’ referenced yesterday’s recipe.

61 Briere küchlein

Take water, add fat, not much, and salt it like a water soup (wassersuppen). When it boils, add the flour so that it becomes thick from the flour and beat it in a bowl so that no lump (putz) is in it. Then break one egg after another into it and beat it well. Do not make it too thin and lay it nicely into the hot fat with a spoon. The dough is always cooked (man bruet) in a pan.

The cursory instructions suggest the author assumes any reader would be familiar with the preparation. It is possible that the title is a typographical error and these care indeed the briete/bruete kuechlein I was missing yesterday.

The short Kuenstlichs und Fuertrefflichs Kochbuch was first printed in Augsburg in 1559 and reprinted in Nuremberg in 1560 and subsequently. Despite its brevity, it is interesting especially as it contains many recipes for küchlein, baked or deep-fried confections, that apparently played a significant role in displaying status. We do not know who the famous cook referenced in the title may have been or if he ever existed.

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Milk Fritters

I’m in the process of preparing for an online teaching event and thus busier than usual, so again I will be limiting you to a short recipe from the Kuenstlichs und Fuertreffliche Kochbuch:

L0029211 A woman milking a cow, woodcut, 1547 Credit: Wellcome Library, London. Wellcome Images images@wellcome.ac.uk http://wellcomeimages.org A woman milking a cow. Coloured Woodcut 1491 Ortus sanitatis Arnaldus de Villanova, Published: 1491 Copyrighted work available under Creative Commons Attribution only licence CC BY 4.0 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

67 To make Milk Fritters (Milchküchlein)

Take milk in a pan, as much as you wish to have, and do not let it boil fully, but let it become quite warm. Take flour in a bowl, and once the milk it hot, pour it into the bowl and stir it well. Do not pour in too much, let iut be nicely thick as for gebruete kuechlein, bake (make) it a little thicker. Then take eggs and stir them well in a small pot (heffelein). Salt them as much as they require and pour them in (to the bowl). Beat it well, and take many eggs, that way they rise well. The dough should be like Bruetekuechel dough. Above all fry them while the dough is warm from the milk, that way they rise nicely. Do not use too much milk, but all the more eggs, that way they turn out good. Make the dough much thicker than streublein batter and lay it in (to the hot fat) with a spoon. Do not make the fat too hot, otherwise they become brown, and fry them slowly. Give them a good heat at the end, that way they do not collapse (fallen sie nit ein) and turn out good and not greasy (schmaltzig). They look just like Bruetekuechlein.

Milk, flour, salt, lots of eggs, and the whole should come out looking a lot like Mutzen (similar to what North Americans know as donut holes) or small Berliner, I assume. What makes this recipe interesting is the attention to technique. Clearly, this is dish whose success or failure hinges on getting the proportion of egg to milk, the consistency of the dough, and the cooking temperature right. In the absence of either precise measurements or a universal terminology for describing such things, the author is struggling to explain what would surely be absolutely clear to an observer.

The short Kuenstlichs und Fuertrefflichs Kochbuch was first printed in Augsburg in 1559 and reprinted in Nuremberg in 1560 and subsequently. Despite its brevity, it is interesting especially as it contains many recipes for küchlein, baked or deep-fried confections, that apparently played a significant role in displaying status. We do not know who the famous cook referenced in the title may have been or if he ever existed.

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Round Gingerbread Fritters

Another recipe from the Kuenstlichs und Fuertrefflichs Kochbuch for today: Sugary, crunchy, spicy fritters.

A Lebkuchenbäcker from the Hausbuch der Landauerschen Zwölfbrüderstiftung of 1520, courtesy of wikimedia commons

56 To fry sugar fritters (Zucker Krepffle)

Take twice-baked gingerbread (Leckuchen) and grate it nicely fine. Searce it through a colander (durchschlag) but (aber) let it become dry. Cut small pieces (pröcklein). When it is dry, pound it in a mortar. Place it in a bowl, add clarified sugar and Trysanet (a sweet spice mix) and make a dough as thick as for Keßküchlein. Also make a dough with water, roll out small rounds (pletzlein), place a piece of the (other) dough the size of a marble (einer schussers groß) into them and fry them in a kachel (a shallow earthenware vessel). Or place them on a board and when the fire in the oven is out, push the board in. That way they also bake. They are supposed to be nicely white. If you do not wish to use clarified sugar, you may well take the best kind of honey that is also clarified and mix the gingerbread with that. These are good for (their) sugar and spice.

This is an interesting recipe, though it is very close to two others that are less clear. As I read it, very dry gingerbread is ground to a powder and mixed with additional spices and sugar to produce a filling. The suggestion that both clarified sugar and honey are suitable as sweeteners suggests that the sugar would have been used in its liquid state after refining rather than dried out again. This is then wrapped in a plain water crust in pieces the size (and I guess the shape) of a marble and fried or baked at a gentle temperature to keep it from browning. The result could well be quite attractive.

Interestingly, there is another recipe quite close in time and space to this one that also describes fritters as being ‘like marbles’. It is from the recipe collection of Sabina Welser dating to 1553 and likely written in Augsburg. These, of course, are savoury, made with cheese, identified as coming from Nuremberg and – like our parallel recipe from this book – associated with carnival:

173 How people customarily make krapfen in Nuremberg for Carnival

Grate parmesan cheese, or another kind that is nicely dry, break eggs into it and also take a little fine wheat flour so it does not become too crunchy with the cheese. Make this firm enough so it does not flow away. Then make an egg dough as for a tart, make long, narrow sheets of it and place in the middle of the sheet little pieces of the cheese mixture, as large as you like them, with a spoon. Fold it over and press it together with two thumbs, each sheet well in place with its filling, then cut them apart with a metal sheet. When you want to bake them, do not let the fat get very hot, but place many of them in the pan when it is barely melted. Fry them slowly and shake the pan well, then they will become like marbles.

This is clearly not the same recipe, not even close. One is a run-of-the-mill cheese fritter in a rich egg dough, the other a sweet confection. At the same time, the connections are so blatant they almost look like they had been written for a treasure hunt. There is the comparison to marbles, the association (admittedly at one remote) with carnival, and of course the fact that they show up in two recipe collections dated six years apart and from the same city. As an aside, between these two and the Stengler collection, mid-century Augsburg may be the best documented place in Renaissance Germany for cooking recipes.

The short Kuenstlichs und Fuertrefflichs Kochbuch was first printed in Augsburg in 1559 and reprinted in Nuremberg in 1560 and subsequently. Despite its brevity, it is interesting especially as it contains many recipes for küchlein, baked or deep-fried confections, that apparently played a significant role in displaying status. We do not know who the famous cook referenced in the title may have been or if he ever existed.

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Turkey Leftover Dishes from de Rontzier

Part two of the turkey recipes from de Rontzier’s 1598 cookbook:

Chopped Dishes (Gehackte Essen) of Turkeys etc.

1 You cut the meat into small pieces, fry it in butter and season it with wine vinegar, apples cut in cubes, sugar and mace.

2 Item you cut it small and season it with drippings, wine, pepper and nutmeg and press bitter orange juice over it. Also lay the bitter oranges on top of it and let it fry until done etc.

3 Item you cut it small and place it in a silver dish together with wine, drippings, chestnuts and mace and let it fry until done etc.

4 You cut it small with hard-boiled egg yolks and season it with wine and beef broth.

5 Item you cut the breasts into small pieces, fry them in butter, and scramble them with eggs, season it with wine and pepper etc.

6 Item you fry the cut-up breasts in butter so that the butter does not turn brown, mix three or four egg yolks with wine, stir them into this and strew it with sugar etc.

7 Item you cut the breasts into small pieces, then pour capon or beef broth over the roast fowl so that it turns brown and then pour it over the cut meat. Let it cook and strew it with pounded nutmeg and serve it.

8 Item you cut the breasts into small pieces, season them with wine, sugar, almond kernels, large raisins, mace, pounded ginger, and drippings and let it cook etc.

9 Item you cut the breasts into long strips and place them in a silver dish. Pour melted butter over them and season them with pounded ginger, sugar, rosewater (read Rosen Wasser for Rosin Wasser – raisin water) and cream and let it cook. When you wish to serve it, strew it with sugar and squeeze bitter orange juice over it.

I had a long workday and can’t really comment much, but these are not in any way unusual for the time and social class. I wonder whether there really was raisin water or if it is the typo I suspect, but I can’t look into that now. Noted for later.

Franz de Rontzier, head cook to the bishop of Halberstadt and duke of Braunschweig, published his encyclopaedic Kunstbuch von mancherley Essen in 1598. He clearly looks to Marx Rumpolt’s New Kochbuch as the new gold standard, but fails to match it in engaging style or depth. He is thus overshadowed by the twin peaks of Marx Rumpolt and Anna Wecker. What makes his work interesting is the way in which he systematically lists versions of a class of dishes, illustrating the breadth or a court cook’s repertoire. He is also more modernly fashionable than Rumpolt. Looking to France rather than Italy and Spain for inspiration, and some of the dishes he first describes may be genuine innovations.

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Turkey Roasts from de Rontzier

Continuing the loose series of posts concerning the impact of the Columbian exchange, today I present some more recipes for turkey, first roasted, from Franz de Rontzier:

Dutch engraving of a turkey from 1659, courtesy of wikimedia commons.

Roasts of Turkeys (Kalkunischen Huenern)

If something should be kept of these (roasted) turkeys, you make chopped dishes (kleingehackt essen) from it.

1 You fill a turkey with sawr (vinegar or alegar) or wine, and when it has lain (gegangen) this way for a while, you should again pour in wine or sawr and clean it out over a few hours. Truss it and stick it half with cloves and then sprinkle bacon with salt and wrap it around it with paper over it. Let it cook slowly and baste it with drippings, and sprinkle it with salt when you wish to serve it.

2 Item roast the turkey plain. Then boil cubed toasted bread, cinnamon, sugar, and small raisins in red wine, but do not let it boil for long. Place it in a silver dish, lay the turkey on it, strew it with sugar-coated cloves and serve it cold or warm etc.

3 Item you fry three or four apples and onions in butter, stir (scramble) it with three or four eggs and chop it with the fat of the turkey, pepper, ginger, mace, and sugar. Then you stick three or four hard-boiled eggs with cloves, mix them into this and fill the turkey with that. Roast it and baste it with drippings, and sprinkle it with salt when you wish to serve it.

4 Item chop scrambled eggs, white bread, gooseberries (stichbirn), nutmeg, ginger, saffron, sugar, and a little salt together. Fill the turkey with that and roast it, and when it is done, put gooseberries and butter into a pan and make them boil up, then pour it over the turkey and sprinkle it with sugar etc.

5 Item you roast it plain and baste it with butter. Then you pour beef broth over toasted white bread, lay the turkey on this together with marrowbones, and let it cook together.

6 Item you lard half the bird with bacon and stick the other half with cloves. When it is half cooked, lay toasted bread in a silver dish, pour beef broth and drippings over it, strew it witzh pepper, let it boil up on the coals, put the turkey on top of it and then serve it etc.

7 Item you brown it over the coals. Then you lay thinly sliced bacon on a table and cut a few bitter oranges into thin slices. Lay those on the bacon. Mix white bread, two or three eggs, sugar, pounded ginger and nutmeg, and spread it on the bacon with a knife. Sprinkle it with salt and wrap it around the turkey. Let it cook until it is well done. Mix dripping, sugar, and rosewater, and pour that over it when you wish to serve it, and strew it with sugar etc.

8 Item you roast a turkey and when it is done, you pour over butter and sprinkle it with salt. Boil white bread in wine and press out the wine again and mix it with rosewater, egg, sugar, and salt. Baste it gently while you turn it, thus it will be coated with the mixture. Sprinkle it with salt and serve it etc.

(p. 214-216)

These are not unusual ways of cooking poultry in sixteenth-century Germany, though they are very luxurious. Fashionable ingredients like bitter oranges, rosewater, spices, and sugar elevate the already exclusive roast turkey to courtly standing. Again, we see the familiar pattern playing out: A New World ingredient fits into a known culinary slot and is treated like a familiar one. It is very rare for foreign techniques to be adopted along with foreign livestock or plants in Western Europe.

Franz de Rontzier, head cook to the bishop of Halberstadt and duke of Braunschweig, published his encyclopaedic Kunstbuch von mancherley Essen in 1598. He clearly looks to Marx Rumpolt’s New Kochbuch as the new gold standard, but fails to match it in engaging style or depth. He is thus overshadowed by the twin peaks of Marx Rumpolt and Anna Wecker. What makes his work interesting is the way in which he systematically lists versions of a class of dishes, illustrating the breadth or a court cook’s repertoire. He is also more modernly fashionable than Rumpolt. Looking to France rather than Italy and Spain for inspiration, and some of the dishes he first describes may be genuine innovations.

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Almond Milk Tartlets

Another one from the Kuenstlichs und Fuertrefflichs Kochbuch:

58 To make small pastries (Bastecklein)

Take blanched almond kernels. Pound them and grind them as finely as you can. Make milk with them that is to be thick, so take all the more almonds. Let it stand in a pot for a day or two so it separates out a little (ein wenig schottet werd) or hang it up in a bag. But it should stand a day and a night before it is dried or poured off. Take this and grind fine white sugar into it. Let it be thick. Take a pastry base (blatz) as though for gewolne küchlein and make a deep bowl (degelein). Put milk into this and bake it in the dough like a May Cake. You must not use fat for this but bake it like bread.

This is an interesting recipe and I suspect it is an iteration of something usually done with regular milk. Compared to some of the complex and refined recipes for almond tarts found about the same time in documents from the same region, they are surprisingly simple, just almond milk and sugar. I am not sure the taste will be much to write home about, but playing with almond milk this way does tempt me.

The short Kuenstlichs und Fuertrefflichs Kochbuch was first printed in Augsburg in 1559 and reprinted in Nuremberg in 1560 and subsequently. Despite its brevity, it is interesting especially as it contains many recipes for küchlein, baked or deep-fried confections, that apparently played a significant role in displaying status. We do not know who the famous cook referenced in the title may have been or if he ever existed.

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